Process of validating a questionnaire
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The exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors: self-awareness, the importance of spiritual beliefs, spiritual practices, and spiritual needs.
External validity is the process of examining the results and questioning whether there are any other possible causal relationships.
Control groups and randomization will lessen external validity problems but no method can be completely successful.
This means that such experiments are more difficult to repeat and are inherently less reliable.
Reliability is a necessary ingredient for determining the overall validity of a scientific experiment and enhancing the strength of the results.
Debate between social and pure scientists, concerning reliability, is robust and ongoing.